Flinders petrie dating method
He next excavated the Temple of Tanis (1884), the city of Naucratis (1885), the town of Daphnae and its environs (1886), the sites of Hawara, Illahun, and Ghurab in the Faiyûm, Egypt (1888-1890), and the temple and pyramids of Maydum (1891).In 1892 he was appointed Edwards professor of Egyptology at University College, London, a post he held until 1933.The scholar most associated with the rules of stratigraphy (or law of superposition) is probably the geologist Charles Lyell.The basis for stratigraphy seems quite intuitive today, but its applications were no less than earth-shattering to archaeological theory.
Flinders Petrie was born on June 3, 1853, at Charlton near Greenwich. At the age of 22, he published his a study of ancient weights and measures.
He also studied British archeological sites, including Stonehenge, from 1875 to 1880.
From 1880 onward, he plunged into an active career of surveys and excavations in Egypt and Palestine interspersed with lectures in London and the publication of a prodigious output of 40 large volumes furnished with numerous plates, a series of popular books, and his autobiography.
Matthew Flinders, the explorer of Australia; as a boy he collected coins and was later introduced by R. Poole (q.v.) to Amelia Edwards (q.v.); his interest in ancient Egypt was first aroused at the age of thirteen by Piazzi Smyth’s (q.v.) book on the Great Pyramid; he attended no schools or college and this lack of formal education was both his strength and weakness in later life, for while he pursued his aims directly and was not given to accepting out-of date methods or theories, he also ignored the views of many who were making valuable contributions to Egyptology and archaeology; he received a considerable training in British archaeology and prehistory, and with his father surveyed Stonehenge in 1872; from this period also dated his lifelong interest in weights and measures; he next surveyed a great many earthworks and archaeological remains in southern England, 1875-80, making a large number of plans of these; he first went to Egypt to make a survey of the Pyramids, 1880-2; he dug for the EEF, 1884-6; he quarrelled with them and decided to set up an archaeological body of his own and thus be completely independent of all outside control; he had a hard struggle at first but from1887 excavated regularly with the help of J. Kennard (q.v.); he founded the Egyptian Research Account, 1894, later enlarged as the British School of Archaeology in Egypt; he rejoined the EEF and worked for them again, 1896-1905; by the wish of Miss Edwards he was appointed to the first chair in Egyptology in England, Edwards Professor, University College London, 1892-1933; Emeritus Prof. Old Refectory and the Petrie Collection, others by G.
1933-42; Kt., 1923; FRS, 1902; FBA, 1904; DCL, Oxford, 1892; Litt D Cantab, 1900; LLD, Edinburgh, 1896, Aberdeen, 1906; DLitt, DSc, Ph D, Strass., 1897; Member of the Royal Irish Acad., and the Amer. Soc.; he married Hilda Urlin (see above), 1897; he inaugurated the first systematic archaeological work in the Near East, and during 42 years excavated more sites than Mariette (q.v.); he dug at the following places, Tanis,1884; Naukratis, 1884-5; Daphnae, 1886; Nebesha, 1886; Hawara, Biahmu, and Arsinoe (Crocodilopolis), 1888, and Hawara, 1910-11; Illahun-Kahun, 1889-90, 1914-19; Gurob, 1889-90; Maidum, 1891, 1909; El-Amarna, 1891-2; Koptos, 1893-4; Naqada and Ballas, 1895; Thebes Ramesseum, etc., 1895-6; Qurna, 1908; Deshasha, 1897; Dendera, 1897-8; Abadiya-Hu (Diospolis), 1898-9; Abydos, 1899-1903, 1921; Ehnasya, 1903-4; Buto, 1904; Sinai - Wadi Maghara and Serabit, 1904-5; Tell el-Yahudiya, 1905-6; Tell er-Reteba, 1905-6; Saft el-Hinna, 1906; Giza and Rifa, 1906-7; Athribis,1907; Memphis, 1908-13; Tarkhan, 1911-13; Sidmant, 1920-1; Haraga; Shurafa, 1911; Heliopolis, 1912; Qau, 1923-4; he also dug for a season in Palestine in 1890, and later abandoned Egypt in 1926 to work until 1938 on Hyksos and other sites in Palestine notably Gaza, 1927-34; he made more major archaeological discoveries than any other archaeologist, the city of Naukratis whose whereabouts had been unknown, the site of Kahun, many fine objects from El-Amarna, the great predynastic cemetery at Naqada, archaic material from the royal tombs of Abydos, the Israel stela of King Mereneptah and the magnificent jewels from Lahun, to list but a few; Petrie advanced the whole approach to archaeology, his methods and techniques being revolutionary in the Near East at the time; he took Furtwängler’s method of dating painted and decorated pottery as an archaeological chronometer and expanded it so that it could be used for all types for the first time, systematically arranging predynastic Egyptian material, and thus inventing sequence dating; in 1891 he established synchronisms through pottery with Greece aided by his former pupil E.