Main unwanted side effect of sedating antihistamines

Bioavailability from topical ocular administration ranges from 30% to 60%.

First-generation antihistamines include diphenhydramine (Benadryl), carbinoxamine (Clistin), clemastine (Tavist), chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), and brompheniramine (Dimetane).

Agents where the main therapeutic effect is mediated by negative modulation of histamine receptors are termed antihistamines; other agents may have antihistaminergic action but are not true antihistamines.

In common use, the term "antihistamine" refers only to H In type I hypersensitivity allergic reactions, an allergen (a type of antigen) interacts with and cross-links surface Ig E antibodies on mast cells and basophils.

Nausea occurs in approximately 25 percent of patients; prophylactic measures may not be required.

Patients who do develop nausea will require antiemetic treatment with an anti-psychotic, prokinetic agent, or serotonin antagonist.

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Understanding the mechanism for opioid-induced nausea will aid in the selection of appropriate agents.

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